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Your Guide To In World Of Nootropics

At the moment, it is incredibly difficult to tot out a figure for the total number of people using Nootropics in the USA, leave alone the world. What we do know, however, is that the popularity and use of smart drugs is gaining traction world over, and that college populations are the biggest user group. The working class is second, latching on to this phenomenon with gusto.

If you are looking to touch base with the world of smart drugs, you need to know what to look for, where to get it and how to use it. Below is a guide to 3 of the most popular ones out there:

Piracetam

Introduced over 50 years ago, this drug was for a long time used for the official purpose of treating Myoclonus. It has however become popular for its capacity to boost the user’s memory. Piracetam works by allowing your logical and creative processes to run alongside each other, stimulating advanced thinking. A single dose is around 4800 mg and effects start manifesting after at least two weeks of daily use. The drug works best when used alongside Choline supplements. You can find it in your local stores or get it from certified online vendors.

Noopept

If Piracetam is the queen of nootropics, then Noopept is the breakout king. It has been described as arguably the most potent of the smart drugs out there. Clinical studies indicate that Noopept is up to 5000 times more effective than Piracetam. In addition to that, its cognitive influence kicks in as soon as the dosage is taken, setting in stage a process that enhances thinking and maintains the conscious aspect of the nervous system.

This is a highly potent drug that needs small doses of no more than 20mg each spread out throughout the day. The maximum recommended frequency is 3 times a day. Experts advise consumers never to go beyond the 40 mg limit in 24 hours. It is available in physically but most people buy their noopept online.

Adrafinil

Adrafinil made its forays into modern-day pharmaceuticals in the 70’s,with French company Lafon Laboratories taking credit for the discovery. It has been touted as a stimulant of the CNS, with its effects helping reduce fatigue and maintain a state of alertness in the face of exerting situations.

To stay on the safe side, keep your dosage to a maximum of 300 mg a day. A good idea would be to pace yourself, starting slow and racking up the volume as your body gets accustomed.

Adrafinil can be purchased legally in places such as the US and neighboring countries like Canada.

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What Is A Spectrophotometer Used For?

In chemical and biological science, the spectrophotometer is a very common tool and it has a wide variety of uses. But what does a spectrophotometer actually do?

Spectrophotometers are instruments used to send electromagnetic radiation into a given target to measure the resulting interaction of energy and the target. The UV spectrophotometer is used to measure the absorption spectrum in the 360-600 nanometer wavelength of a spectrum. The absorption versus the spectrum data is then converted into information for digital display.

How It Works

what does a spectrophotometer measureThe first step towards using a simple spectrophotometer is to set the needle to the left zero by using the left knob. The needle might drift and should be adjusted during this time. The process is known as zeroing the light output. This process is a means of maintaining standard operating conditions on a daily basis.

The light rail is then tracked from the lamp to the right towards the reflecting diffraction grating, which resolves incident light into its spectrum. The grating moves as the wavelength cam is moved which shifts the direction of the reflected spectrum and separates the different intensities of light at different wavelengths.

The lights then interact with the sample, which allows the light beam to interact with the phototube displaying the intensity on the meter. The detector measures the absorbance and transmittance of the sample at this point. The transmittance is the amount of energy passing through a sample while absorbance is the light that is absorbed by the sample. The detector senses the light through the sample and converts it into information.

Uses Of A Spectrophotometer

For the measurement of the transmittance and reflectance of solutions , polished glass, transparent or opaque solids and gases.

To measure diffusivity of light ranges using different controls and calibrations dedicated to various tasks.
Some are used in industries for the study of chemicals.
To determine which substances are present in a target at a particular point in time.

  • Respiratory gas analyses in health facilities depend on this technology.
  • Space exploration
  • The characterization of proteins
  • Applied in the study of spectral emission lines of galaxies
  • In monitoring the content of dissolved oxygen in marine and fresh water ecosystems

Spectrophotometers are extremely valuable as they see a color drift long before the human eye can. Our human vision is dependent on alot of factors that are changeable, e.g. the time of the day, age, genetics and many other parameters . On the other hand, a spectrophotometer is consistent and will give you accurate color data time after time if they are well maintained . For print rooms, spectrophotometers ensure that press operators match colors expertly to meet customers’ expectations.

Sources

http://scienceinthetriangle.org/spectrophotometers/

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Phasing Out Fossil Fuels Not That Hard Of A Task?

An article was recently published in a major UK energy publication that states global reliance on fossil fuels as a source of energy could be phased out in a decade. This article was authored by Professor Benjamin Sovacool of the University of Sussex. Fossil fuels outphased in a decade is an ambition that can come true much sooner than many expect but it will need a lot of collaboration and effort from various institutions, governments and organizations. Professor Sovacool presented his findings in a peer-review journal known as Energy Research & Social Science.

Transition to electricity took around 60 years

According to the article’s author, the world can learn and draw lessons from previous transitions such as wood to coal in Europe. This transition took between 100 and 160 years compared to the transition to electricity which happened between 50 and 70 years. This time round, there are mitigating factors that make the transition a lot more urgent. For instance, resources are dwindling and climate change is major threat. Improved technology and innovations are capable of accelerating the transition from fossil fuels to cleaner forms of energy.

The article by the English professor highlights plenty of practical examples that demonstrate a faster transition but are largely ignored by analysts. In Canada for instance, there was a very speedy shift from coal lasting only 11 years. Indonesia moved its population from kerosene to LPG gas within 3 years while France transited to nuclear power generation in just 12 years. Fossil fuels out-phased in a decade and transition to cleaner energy systems is a very possible objective. However, it will require significant shifts in political regulations, energy pricing methods and technology. There is a lot that has been learnt from previous transitions that make it very possible for a faster and easier shift to cleaner energy sources in the very near future. A lot still needs to be done to address the issues in this field.

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World’s Largest Solar Powered Computer Providing Development in Africa

A computer known as Watly is said to be the world’s largest solar-powered computer. This computer was invented by a start-up company by the same name. The purpose of this solar powered computer is to ensure adequate provision of Internet services, electricity and water to communities across Africa. Watly, therefore, has the capacity to transform lives in rural and regional Africa. The Italian-Spanish start-up company created a computer that resembles a futuristic space capsule.

It is said there are around 625 million Africans living in Sub-Saharan Africa who have no access to electricity, with another 40% lacking clean drinking water. This is a large population that goes without essential services so the new computer provides hope and chance for a better, more quality lifestyle. According to Marco Attisani, the founder of Watly, this new computer provides infrastructure solution for a lot of people. Hundreds of millions of Sub-Saharan residents are expected to gain access to fundamental pillars of civilization.

Panels on top of computer

The system functions by using solar energy received via panels located on top of the computer. The solar energy is then converted to electricity and stored in a 140kwh battery within the computer. It comes with a patented water treatment system that can deliver clean water for domestic use. The capacity currently is 5000 liters of water per day. The solar powered computer also powers a connectivity hub that provides wireless Internet access to the population. Th Internet has a reach of 800 meters all round and comes with a station for charging mobile devices.

Apart from providing the basic needs of Sub-Saharan Africa, this solar powered computer is also able to stimulate economic growth within these communities. Plenty of local entrepreneurs are expected to start small and medium size businesses around Watly. It is expected that within a period of 8 years, there will be over 10,000 units of this computer all across communities in Africa with about 50,000 jobs created.

 

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Does Cell Phones Really Cause Cancer?

You have heard it said before. Your phone can give you cancer. For a long time, tons of research touted radio frequencies as a cancer causing agent. So much that people were advised to hold their phones away from their ears while the call went through. However, a 30-year research has shown that there is no relation between mobile phone use and cancer. The research was done in Australia and examined 3 decades of data collected between 1982 and 2013. As expected it will take more than a single research to determine exactly how safe cell phone use is. Nevertheless, this will steer efforts to substantiate the exact scenario in the right direction.

A place just perfect for the research

The study used data on 19,858 men and 14,222 women who were diagnosed with cancer of the brain in Australia. This data was compared with data showing mobile phone use from 1987- the year mobile phones were introduced to the country, and 2012. Australia was an ideal place to carry out such a research since all cancer cases are recorded by law with plenty of far-reaching information to boot.

The study was led by Simon Chapman and together with his colleagues Qingwei Luo, Lamiae Aziz and Freddy Sitas. They formed patterns from age, gender and precise rates of cancer incidences during the period studied.

Researchers noted a slight increase in cancer cases in men but there was no noticeable increase in women. An increase in cancer rate was noticed in people aged 70 to 84 over the 3 decade time period. The rise could not, however, be attributed to mobile phone use since it began before the devices reached Australia.

The study also calculated the number of cancer cases assuming that mobile phone use indeed caused cancer. In their results the expected number of cases in 2012 was true was 1,866 which was higher than the number actual number of cases which is 1435.

The results are encouraging to those who love their time with their precious little gadgets. However, we cannot yet rest easy as there is a lot more to be found out.

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New Zika Virus Test

A new test for the Zika virus has been developed by researchers at MIT together with other professionals from notable institutions. The paper-based test can distinguish Zika virus from dengue virus. The two are very similar and, as such, difficult to tell apart. The test can be kept at room temperature and read using a simple electronic reader. The Wyss Institute of Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard developed the test such to be able to pin down the specific Zika strain using a sample saliva, urine or blood from a patient.

A simpler test

What is arguably the best thing about the test is the fact that it is simple to carry out. This makes it easy to use even for people who don’t have enough training. For this reason wide spread use of the test is now a viable option. The method currently used to test for the virus involves work with nucleic acids. It requires access to a sophisticated lab with expensive equipment and proficient technicians.

How the test works

The test is based on the same technology that the team developed to detect the Ebola virus in October 2014. The researches had found a way to create artificial gene networks that could be embedded on a piece of paper. The gene networks detect a genetic sequence causing the paper to change color. For the Zika virus the test uses isothermal RNA amplification and toehold sensors. The solution with amplified RNA is then applied on a freeze-dried piece of paper just about the same size as a stamp. Within 30 minutes a color change is observed and the virus is identified.

Team leader James Collins said that the research was propeled by the outbreak of the virus. The team had developed unique technologies which they used to steer their research towards creating a way to diagnose a patient with Zika faster in the field.

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SpaceX To Blast off Red Dragon Into Mars Mission

SpaceX intends to lift off the Red Dragon for unmanned mission to Mars in 2018. The spacecraft will be launched at the Falcon Heavy (FH) space launch.

The mission – a collaboration of SpaceX and NASA – is expected to provide information regarding the general structural composition of Mars.

Elon Musk, SpaceX Chief Executive Officer last week tweeted that they “wouldn’t recommend transporting astronauts” in the Red Dragon’s trip.

Detailed revelation is expected from Musk during the International Astronautical Conference scheduled to take place this summer in Mexico. The CEO however points out that the internal volume of the spacecraft is the size of an SUV.

SpaceX recently carried out tests on the propulsive landing system of Dragon the Super Dracoat the company’s facility in McGregor, Texas with reports indicating that the experiment was a massive success.

Falcon Heavy tests to follow

SpaceX has said that the inaugural launch at the FH is planned for at the end of this year. The first takeoff at Falcon Heavy has been postponed time and again. It was originally scheduled for 2013 before being rescheduled for 2015 and carried over again to April-May 2016. The vehicle’s launch is now not expected to happen earlier than November.

NASA’s input

SpaceX will cater for the funding of the mission. However, NASA will provide technical support like the use of Deep Space Network communications.

According to NASA spokesperson Tabatha Thompson, the collaboration is expected to provide precious entry, descending as well as landing information to NASA for journeys to Mars, and at the same time provide support to the American astronomical industry.

NASA has plans to send human beings to Mars in the 2030s and could be acing itself for the commercialization of manned space trips. Private companies have developed impressive manned space capabilities that are currently hard for NASA to replicate, according to Mike Jude, program manager at Frost & Sullivan.

 

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